Yesu: Nthano chabe?

Nthawi ya Advent ndi Khrisimasi ndi nthawi yolingalira. Nthawi yosinkhasinkha za Yesu ndi thupi lake, nthawi yachisangalalo, chiyembekezo ndi lonjezo. Anthu padziko lonse lapansi amafotokoza zakubadwa kwake. Nyimbo imodzi ya Khrisimasi pambuyo pake imatha kumveka pamlengalenga. M'matchalitchi, mwambowu umakondwerera ndimasewera a kubadwa kwa Yesu, ma cantata ndi kuyimba kwaya. Ndi nthawi ya chaka yomwe munthu angaganize kuti dziko lonse lapansi liphunzira zoona zake za Yesu Mesiya. Koma mwatsoka, ambiri samvetsa tanthauzo lonse la nyengo ya Khrisimasi ndipo amangokondwerera mwambowo chifukwa cha chikondwerero chokhudzana ndi chikondwererochi. Ndi izi amasowa kwambiri kotero kuti mwina sakumudziwa Yesu kapena amamatira ku bodza loti iye ndi nthano chabe - zonena zomwe zidapitilira kuyambira pomwe Chikhristu chidayamba.

Sizachilendo panthawiyi kuti nkhani za atolankhani zizinena kuti: "Yesu ndi nthano chabe", ndipo ndemanga yake imanenedwa kuti Baibo ndi yosadalirika monga umboni wa mbiri yakale. Koma zonenazi sizikuganizira kuti zimayang'ana kumbuyo kwakale kwambiri kuposa magwero ambiri "odalirika". Olemba mbiri nthawi zambiri amatchula zolemba za wolemba mbiri yakale a Herodotus ngati umboni wodalirika. Komabe, pali mitundu isanu ndi itatu yokha yodziwika ya zomwe ananena, zomwe zaposachedwa kwambiri ndi za 900 - pafupifupi zaka 1.300 pambuyo pake.

Mumasiyanitsa zimenezi ndi Chipangano Chatsopano “chonyozeka” chimene chinalembedwa Yesu atangofa ndi kuukitsidwa. Mbiri yake yakale kwambiri (chidutswa cha Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane) ndi chapakati pa 125 ndi 130. Pali makope oposa 5.800 a Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chigiriki, pafupifupi 10.000 m’Chilatini ndi 9.300 m’zinenero zina. Ndikufuna ndikudziwitseni mawu atatu odziwika bwino omwe amatsindika za kutsimikizika kwa zochitika za moyo wa Yesu.
Woyamba amapita kwa wolemba mbiri wachiyuda Flavius ​​​​Josephus kuchokera ku 1. Century back:

Pa nthawi imeneyi Yesu anakhalapo, munthu wanzeru [...]. Pakuti anali wokwaniritsa ntchito zodabwitsa komanso mphunzitsi wa anthu onse amene analandira choonadi mosangalala. Choncho anakopa Ayuda ambiri komanso anthu a mitundu ina. Iye anali Khristu. Ndipo ngakhale kuti Pilato, mosonkhezeredwa ndi olemekezeka kwambiri a anthu athu, anamuweruza kuti aphedwe pa mtanda, otsatira ake akale sanali osakhulupirika kwa iye. [...] Ndipo anthu achikhristu amene amadzitcha okha pambuyo pake alipobe mpaka lero. [Antiquitates Judaicae, German: Jewish Antiquities, Heinrich Clementz (transl.)].

FF Bruce, yemwe adamasulira zolembedwa zoyambirira zachilatini mchingerezi, adati "kwa wolemba mbiri wopanda tsankho, mbiri ya Khristu ndiyokhazikika monga Julius Caesar."
Mawu achiwiri akubwerera kwa wolemba mbiri wachiroma Carius Cornelius Tacitus, yemwenso analemba zolemba zake mzaka za zana loyamba. Ponena za zonena kuti Nero adawotcha Roma ndikuwadzudzula akhristu, analemba kuti:

[...] Nero anaika mlandu kwa ena ndi kulanga anthuwo ndi zilango zopambana zomwe anthu ankadana nazo ndi kuzitcha Akhristu chifukwa cha nkhanza zawo. Dzina lake, Kristu, anaphedwa ndi bwanamkubwa Pontiyo Pilato m’nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Tiberiyo. [...] Pachifukwa ichi, omwe adavomereza adamangidwa poyamba, ndiyeno, poyankha zomwe adanena, chiwerengero chachikulu cha anthu omwe adaweruzidwa kuti ndi olakwa pang'ono chifukwa cha kutentha komwe amawaimba mlandu kuposa chifukwa cha udani wawo wamba. anthu. (Annales, 15, 44; Kumasulira kwachijeremani pambuyo pa GF Strodtbeck, lolembedwa ndi E. Gottwein)

Mawu achitatu achokera kwa Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, wolemba mbiri ku Roma munthawi yaulamuliro wa Trajan ndi Hadrian. M'buku lolembedwa mu 125 lonena za moyo wa Asesariya khumi ndi awiri oyamba, adalemba za Claudius, yemwe adalamulira kuyambira 41 mpaka 54:

Ayuda, amene anasonkhezeredwa ndi Krestus ndi kupitiriza kuyambitsa zipolowe, iye anawathamangitsa mu Roma. ( Kaiserbiographien ya Sueton, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Caesar, 25.4; yotembenuzidwa ndi Adolf Stahr; onani kalembedwe kakuti “Chrestus” kaamba ka Kristu.)

Mawu a Suetonius akunena za kufalikira kwa Chikhristu ku Roma zaka za 54 zisanachitike, patadutsa zaka makumi awiri kuchokera pomwe Yesu adamwalira. Katswiri wina wa ku Britain wa Chipangano Chatsopano I. Howard Marshall anazindikira izi polingalira za izi ndi maumboni ena: “Sizingatheke kufotokoza za kutuluka kwa tchalitchi chachikhristu kapena malembo a uthenga wabwino ndi momwe miyambo idayambira popanda zomwezo. nthawi yovomereza kuti yemwe anayambitsa Chikhristu adalikodi. "

Ngakhale kuti akatswiri ena amakayikira kulondola kwa mawu aŵiri oyambirirawo ndipo ena amawaona kukhala olembedwa mwachinyengo ndi manja achikristu, maumboni ameneŵa ngozikidwa pa maziko olimba. M’nkhani ino, ndasangalala kumva ndemanga imene katswiri wa mbiri yakale Michael Grant ananena m’buku lake lakuti Jesus: An Historian’s Review of the Gospels kuti: “Pamene tikukamba za latsopano Kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo zomwezo m’ma Wills monga momwe tinachitira ndi zolembedwa zina zakale kuti zili ndi nkhani za m’mbiri—zimene tiyenera kuchita—sitingakane kukhalako kwa Yesu monga momwe sitingakane kuti anthu angapo achikunja amene kukhalako kwawo kowona monga ziŵerengero za mbiri yakale sikungakanidwe konse kunali kukayikiridwa.”

Ngakhale kuti anthu okayikira amatsutsa mwamsanga zimene safuna kukhulupirira, pali zosiyana. Katswiri wina wa maphunziro a zaumulungu John Shelby Spong, wodziŵika monga wokayikira ndi womasuka, analemba m’buku lakuti Jesus for the Non-Religious kuti: “Poyamba Yesu anali munthu amene anakhaladi pamalo enaake panthaŵi inayake. Munthuyo Yesu sanali nthano chabe, koma munthu wa mbiri yakale yemwe mphamvu yayikulu idachokera - mphamvu yomwe ikufunabe kufotokozedwa kokwanira lero. "
Pokhala wosakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu, CS Lewis adawona nkhani za Chipangano Chatsopano zonena za Yesu ngati nthano chabe. Koma ataziwerenga iyemwini ndikuziyerekeza ndi nthano zakale zakale komanso zongopeka zomwe adazidziwa, adazindikira kuti malembowa sanafanane ndi amenewo. M'malo mwake, mawonekedwe ndi mawonekedwe ake amafanana ndi zilembo zokumbukira zomwe zimawonetsa moyo watsiku ndi tsiku wa munthu weniweni. Atazindikira izi, cholepheretsa chikhulupiriro chidagwa. Kuyambira pamenepo, Lewis analibenso vuto kukhulupirira kuti mbiri ya Yesu ndi yoona.

Okayikira ambiri amatsutsa kuti monga wosakhulupirira Mulungu Albert Einstein sanakhulupirire Yesu. Ngakhale kuti sanali kukhulupirira “Mulungu waumwini”, iye anasamala kuti asayambe nkhondo ndi amene anachita zimenezo; chifukwa chakuti: “Chikhulupiriro choterocho chimaoneka kwa ine nthaŵi zonse kukhala chabwino kwambiri kuposa kusakhalapo kwa kawonedwe kamene kalikonse.” Max Jammer, Einstein ndi Religion: Physics and Theology; German: Einstein and chipembedzo: physics and theology) Einstein, yemwe anakulira monga Myuda, anavomereza kuti anali “wachangu ndi chithunzi cha kuwala kwa Mnazarayo”. Atafunsidwa ndi mmodzi wa okamba nkhani ngati anazindikira kukhalako kwa Yesu m’mbiri, iye anayankha kuti: “Mosakayikira. Palibe amene angawerenge Mauthenga Abwino popanda kumva kukhalapo kwenikweni kwa Yesu. Umunthu wake umamveka m'mawu aliwonse. Palibe nthano yomwe ili ndi moyo wotero. Zosiyana bwanji, mwachitsanzo, ndi malingaliro omwe timapeza kuchokera munkhani ya ngwazi yodziwika bwino ngati Theseus. Theseus ndi ngwazi zina zamtunduwu alibe mphamvu zenizeni za Yesu. ”(George Sylvester Viereck, The Saturday Evening Post, October 26, 1929, What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview)

Ndikhoza kupitirizabe, koma monga momwe katswiri wamaphunziro a Roma Katolika Raymond Brown analozera molondola, kugogomezera pa funso lakuti kaya Yesu ali nthano yopeka kumapangitsa ambiri kuiwala tanthauzo lenileni la uthenga wabwino. M’buku lakuti The Birth of the Messiah , Brown ananena kuti anthu amene amafuna kulemba nkhani yonena za kubadwa kwa Yesu nthawi zambiri amafika pa Khirisimasi. “Kenaka, mopanda chipambano chochepa, ndimayesa kuwatsimikizira kuti angathandize kumvetsetsa nkhani za kubadwa kwa Yesu mwa kuyang’ana kwambiri pa uthenga wawo m’malo mwa funso limene alaliki sankaliganizira kwenikweni.” Nkhani ya Khirisimasi, kubadwa kwa Yesu Khristu, m'malo mongofuna kutsimikizira anthu kuti Yesu sanali nthano chabe, ifeyo ndi umboni weniweni wosonyeza kuti Yesu analidi weniweni. Umboni wamoyo umenewo ndi moyo umene ukuyenda mwa ife ndi mdera lathu. Cholinga chachikulu cha Baibulo sindicho kutsimikizira kulondola kwa mbiri ya kubadwa kwa Yesu m’thupi, koma kuuza ena chifukwa chimene anadzera ndi tanthauzo la kubwera kwake kwa ife. Mzimu Woyera amagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo kutifikitsa ife kukhudzana kwenikweni ndi Ambuye wobadwa thupi ndi woukitsidwa amene amatikokera kwa iye kuti tikhulupirire mwa Iye ndi kusonyeza ulemerero kwa Atate kudzera mwa iye. Yesu anabwera padziko lapansi monga umboni wa chikondi cha Mulungu kwa aliyense wa ife ( 1 Yoh 4,10). M'munsimu muli zifukwa zinanso za kubwera kwake:

-Kufunafuna ndi kupulumutsa chotayikacho (Luka 19,10).
- Kupulumutsa ochimwa ndi kuwaitanira kulapa (1 Timoteo 1,15; Markus 2,17).
- Kupereka moyo wake kuwombola anthu (Mateyu 20,28).
- Kuchitira umboni choonadi (Yohane 18,37).
-Kuchita chifuniro cha Atate ndi kutsogolera ana ambiri ku ulemerero (Yoh 5,30; Ahebri 2,10).
- Kukhala kuunika kwa dziko lapansi, njira, chowonadi ndi moyo (Yoh 8,12; 14,6).
—Kulalikira uthenga wabwino wa ufumu wa Mulungu (Luka 4,43).
-Kukwaniritsa lamulo (Mateyu 5,17).
- Chifukwa bambo adamtuma: “Pakuti Mulungu anakonda dziko lapansi kotero, kuti anapatsa Mwana wake wobadwa yekha, kuti yense wakukhulupirira Iye asatayike, koma akhale nawo moyo wosatha. Pakuti Mulungu sanatume Mwana wake kudziko lapansi kuti adzaweruze dziko lapansi, koma kuti dziko lapansi likapulumutsidwe kudzera mwa iye. Aliyense wokhulupirira mwa Iye sadzaweruzidwa; koma amene sakhulupirira waweruzidwa, chifukwa sakhulupirira dzina la Mwana wobadwa yekha wa Mulungu.” 3,16-18).

Mwezi uno tikukondwerera choonadi chakuti Mulungu anabwera padziko lapansi kudzera mwa Yesu. Ndi bwino kudzikumbutsa kuti sialiyense amene amadziwa choonadi ichi ndipo taitanidwa kuti tiziuzako ena. Woposa munthu m’mbiri yamakono, Yesu ndi Mwana wa Mulungu amene anabwera kudzayanjanitsa onse ndi Atate mwa Mzimu Woyera. Izi zimapangitsa nthawi ino kukhala nthawi yachisangalalo, chiyembekezo, ndi lonjezo

ndi Joseph Tkach


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