Chipembedzo cha New Atheism

356 chipembedzo chokana Mulungu tsopanoMu Chingerezi, mzere wakuti "Dona, zikuwoneka kwa ine, adayamika [Chingerezi Chakale: zionetsero] kwambiri" nthawi zambiri amatchulidwa kuchokera ku Hamlet ya Shakespeare , kufotokoza wina yemwe akuyesera kutsimikizira ena za chinachake chomwe si chowona. Mawu amenewa amabwera m’maganizo ndikamva anthu osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu akutsutsa zoti kulibe Mulungu ndi chipembedzo. Ena osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu amathandizira kutsutsa kwawo ndi mafananidwe otsatirawa:

  • Ngati kukana Mulungu ndi chipembedzo, ndiye kuti "dazi" ndi mtundu wa tsitsi. Ngakhale kuti izi zingamveke ngati zakuya, ndi mawu abodza okha omwe amafanizidwa ndi gulu losayenera. Dazi alibe chochita ndi mtundu wa tsitsi. Ndithudi, palibe mtundu wa tsitsi umene ungaoneke pamutu wadazi, koma popeza kuti kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu kumaonekera m’njira zingapo, ungakhale wofanana ndi zipembedzo zina, ngakhale utakhala wapadera; n’chimodzimodzinso ndi Chikhristu. Komanso, sindinakumanepo ndi munthu wadazi wopanda tsitsi. Ngati wina alibe tsitsi pamutu pake, sizingasonyezedwe ngati palibe tsitsi.
  • Ngati kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndi chipembedzo, ndiye kuti thanzi ndi matenda. Monga ndidanenera, izi zitha kumveka ngati syllogism yovomerezeka poyang'ana koyamba, koma sichinthu choposa kuyankhula momveka bwino komwe ndikufaniziranso zabodza ndi gulu losayenera, zomwe sizolondola. Ndiyeneranso kutchula kuti kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti kukhulupirira Mulungu sikugwirizana kokha ndi malipoti a umoyo wabwino wauzimu wa okhulupirira, komanso ndi thanzi labwino la thupi poyerekeza ndi osakhulupirira. M'malo mwake, pafupifupi maphunziro a thanzi la 350 ndi maphunziro a zaumoyo a 850 ofufuza zigawo zachipembedzo ndi zauzimu adapeza kuti zisonkhezero zachipembedzo ndi uzimu zimalumikizidwa ndikuchira bwino.
  • Ngati kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndi chipembedzo, ndiye kuti kudziletsa ndi kugonana. Apanso, kukhala ndi mawu awiri motsutsana wina ndi mzake sikutsimikizira kalikonse. Mutha kupitilira ndikuyika mawu atsopano opanda pake. Kuwonetsedwa kwa zolakwika zomveka sikutiuza chilichonse chokhudza zomwe zili zoona.

Bwalo lalikulu lamilandu la ku America (Supreme Court) lagamula milandu ingapo kuti kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu kuyenera kutengedwa ngati chipembedzo motsatira malamulo (ie ngati chikhulupiriro chotetezedwa pamlingo wofanana ndi zipembedzo zina). Okhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu amakhulupirira kuti kulibe milungu. Kuwonedwa motere, chiri chikhulupiriro cha milungu ndipo chimachiyeneretsa kukhala chipembedzo, mofanana ndi Chibuda chimatchedwanso chipembedzo.

Pali malingaliro atatu achipembedzo a Mulungu: okhulupirira Mulungu mmodzi (Chiyuda, Chikhristu, Chisilamu), opembedza milungu yambiri (Chihindu, Chimomoni) ndi osakhulupirira Mulungu (Chibuda, Chisilamu). Wina akhoza kuyambitsa gulu lachinayi la kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndikulitcha kuti odana ndi Mulungu. M'nkhani yomwe idatuluka mu The Christian Post, Mike Dobbins akuwonetsa momwe kusakhulupirira kuli Mulungu. Zotsatirazi ndi gawo (kuchokera ku Atheism as a Religion: An Introduction to the World's Least Understood Faith):

wkg mb 356 kukana MulunguKwa osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu, chilembo 'A' ndi chizindikiro chopatulika chomwe chimayimira kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu. Pali zizindikiro zazikulu zitatu za 'A' mu kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu. Chizindikiro cha 'A' chazunguliridwa ndi bwalo ndipo chinapangidwa mu 2007 ndi Atheist Alliance International. Bwaloli likuyenera kuyimira umodzi wa osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndikugwirizanitsa zizindikiro zina zonse zosakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu pansi pake. Iwo sali
zizindikiro zokhazo zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti kulibe Mulungu. Pali chizindikiro chachipembedzo chokana Mulungu chomwe chimangodziwika kwa anthu omwe ali mkati kapena odziwa kuti kulibe Mulungu.

Anthu ambiri amene amakhulupirira kuti kulibe Mulungu anafotokoza momveka bwino pa Khirisimasi 2013 kuti chizindikiro cha 'A' ndi chopatulika kwa iwo. M’tauni yakwathu ku Chicago, amaloledwa kukhazikitsa Hanukkah menorah (zoyikapo nyali za chikondwerero chachiyuda cha nyali) ndi bedi la Khirisimasi m’malo opezeka anthu ambiri m’nyengo ya chikondwerero. Chotero okana Mulungu anafuna kuti iwonso aime chizindikiro chawo chachipembedzo; mwa njira imeneyi olamulirawo akanapeŵa kupereka lingaliro lakuti anali kuchita ndi zipembedzo zosiyanasiyana mosiyana. Bungwe la Freedom From Religion Foundation lidasankha scaffolding yokhala ndi chizindikiro chachikulu cha 'A', 2,5 Mamita okwera, okhala ndi zizindikiro zofiira za neon kuti ziwonekere kwa aliyense. Osawerengeka osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu anapereka ulemu kwa 'A' wawo popanga malowa kukhala malo ochezera. Kumeneko adajambula zithunzi zawo ndi 'A' yofiira. Ndine wotsimikiza kuti ambiri aiwo azisunga zithunzizo ngati zokumbukira zapadera. Koma chofiyira chachikulu A sichinali chokwanira kwa iwo. Anakwanitsanso kusonyeza chikhulupiriro chawo chosakhulupirira Mulungu mwa kuika chizindikiro cholembedwa kuti: “Kulibe milungu, kulibe ziwanda, kulibe angelo, kulibe kumwamba kapena kumoto. Pali dziko lathu lachilengedwe lokha. Chipembedzo ndi nthano chabe komanso zikhulupiriro zomwe zimaumitsa mtima ndikusandutsa malingaliro akapolo.

The Debunking Atheists Blog [2] ili ndi mndandanda wothandiza wamalingaliro osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu omwe amawonetsa momveka bwino zachipembedzo chawo.

Pansipa pali chidule cha mndandanda:

  • Osakhulupirira Mulungu ali ndi malingaliro awoawo a dziko. Kukonda chuma (lingaliro lakuti pali dziko limodzi lokha lakuthupi) ndilo lens lomwe anthu osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu amawonera dziko lapansi. M'malo mokhala omasuka, ndi mfundo zotsimikizirika zokha zomwe zimawawerengera; amamvetsetsa mfundo zonse mochokera ku kawonedwe kocheperako kokonda chuma.
  • Osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ali ndi chiphunzitso chawochawo. Orthodoxy ndi gulu la zikhulupiriro zokhazikika zomwe gulu lachipembedzo lidatengera. Monga momwe kulili chiphunzitso chachikristu, palinso wosakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu. Mwachidule, chirichonse chomwe chiripo chingafotokozedwe monga zotsatira za chisinthiko chosakonzekera, chosalamulirika ndi chopanda tanthauzo. Kudzinenera kulikonse kwa chowonadi kudzakanidwa bola ngati sikungafanane ndi kuunika kwasayansi ndi kutsimikizira kwamphamvu.
  • Osakhulupirira Mulungu ali ndi njira yawoyawo yotchulira ampatuko (opanduka). Mpatuko umatanthauza kukana chikhulupiriro choyambirira. Antony Flew (1923-2010, wafilosofi wachingelezi) anali m'modzi mwa anthu otsutsa kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi kwa zaka zambiri. Kenako anachita zosayembekezereka: anasintha maganizo ake. Mutha kulingalira momwe gulu la "otseguka, lololera" la neo-atheist lidachita. Flew ananenezedwa. Richard Dawkins adadzudzula Flew kuti "asintha malingaliro ake" - liwu lodziwika bwino lampatuko. Malinga ndi kuvomereza kwawo, Flew wapatuka pa “chikhulupiriro” chawo [nakhala mtundu wa Deist].
  • Osakhulupirira Mulungu ali ndi aneneri awo: Nietzsche, Russell, Feuerbach, Lenin ndi Marx.
  • Osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ali ndi mesiya wawo: Charles Darwin, yemwe amakhulupirira kuti adayendetsa mtengo wofunikira kwambiri pamtima wa theism popereka kufotokoza kokwanira kuti moyo sufunikira Mulungu monga wolemba kapena kufotokozera. Daniel Dennett analemba ngakhale buku lonena za izo ndi cholinga chofotokoza zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo pachokha monga chitukuko cha chisinthiko.
  • Osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ali ndi alaliki ndi alaliki awoawo: Dawkins, Dennett, Harris, ndi Hitchens (ndiwo ofotokoza anayi odziwika bwino a gulu la neo-atheist).
  • Okana Mulungu ndi okhulupirira. Ngakhale kuti amanyoza chikhulupiriro m’zolemba zawo (buku la Harris lili ndi mutu wakuti Mapeto a Chikhulupiriro), kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndi njira yozikidwa pa chikhulupiriro. Popeza kukhalapo kwa Mulungu sikungatsimikiziridwe kapena kutsutsidwa, kukanidwa kwa Mulungu kumafuna kukhulupirira luso la munthu la sayansi la kupenyerera ndi kulingalira kwanzeru. Pachitukuko cha kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu palibe kufotokoza kwa funso lakuti "N'chifukwa chiyani chilengedwe chimalamulidwa, chowerengeka komanso choyezeka?" Kusakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu kulibe kufotokoza momveka bwino chifukwa chake pali chinthu chonga kuganiza bwino. Alibe kufotokoza kwa mafunso omwe akuyembekeza kuti sadzafunsidwa monga "N'chifukwa chiyani timadzimvera chisoni? Kodi chimatipangitsa kuganiza chiyani? Kodi kuzindikira kwachilengedwe chonse cha chabwino ndi choipa kumachokera kuti? Kodi tingadziŵe bwanji motsimikiza kuti kulibe pambuyo pa imfa? Kodi tingatsimikize bwanji kuti palibe chilichonse kunja kwa dziko lakuthupi? Kodi timadziŵa bwanji kuti zinthu zoterozo zokha zilipo zimene zimazindikirika ndi njira zathu zodziŵika za sayansi ndi zauzimu? Osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu amati ndi zinthu zosamvetsetseka chifukwa cha chikhulupiriro - amakayikira zinthu popanda kukhala ndi zifukwa zomveka kapena zotsimikizira.

Mosiyana ndi zionetsero za anthu osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu, zenizeni za dongosolo lawo laupandu ndi njira yozikidwa pa chikhulupiriro ndi machitidwe ndi zikhulupiriro monga zipembedzo zina. N’zodabwitsa kuti anthu amene amakhulupirira kuti kulibe Mulungu amene amaumirira kuti kulibe Mulungu si chipembedzo ndipo amakalipira zipembedzo zina amaika zizindikiro zazikulu zopikisana ndi zipembedzo zina.

Ndikufulumira kuwonjezera kuti akhristu ena amalakwitsanso chimodzimodzi akamanena za zipembedzo zina (komanso mitundu ina yachikhristu). Monga Akristu, tisaiwale kuti chikhulupiriro chathu si chipembedzo wamba chimene tinganene ndi kuchiteteza. M'malo mwake, chikhristu ndi maziko ake ubale wamoyo ndi Mulungu Utatu: Atate, Mwana ndi Mzimu Woyera. Maitanidwe athu monga akhristu sikutanthauza kukakamiza zikhulupiriro zina padziko lapansi, koma kukhala okhudzidwa ndi ntchito yopitilira ya Mulungu yakuyanjanitsa ngati akazembe ake (2. Akorinto 5,18-21) - polalikira uthenga wabwino (Uthenga Wabwino) kuti anthu akhululukidwa, kuti awomboledwa ndi kukondedwa ndi Mulungu, amene akuyang'ana ubale wa chikhulupiriro (chikhulupiriro), chiyembekezo ndi chikondi ndi anthu onse amalakalaka.

Ndine wokondwa kuti chikhristu chenicheni si chipembedzo koma ubale.

Joseph Tsoka

Purezidenti
CHISOMO CHOKHUDZANA NDI MADZIKO OTHANDIZA


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